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About Pakistan

Introduction Pakistan
Background:
The separation in 1947 of British India into the Muslim state of Pakistan (with two sections West and East) and largely Hindu India was never satisfactorily resolved, and India and Pakistan fought two wars - in 1947-48 and 1965 - over the disputed Kashmir territory. A third war between these countries in 1971 - in which India capitalized on Islamabad's marginalization of Bengalis in Pakistani politics - resulted in East Pakistan becoming the separate nation of Bangladesh. In response to Indian nuclear weapons testing, Pakistan conducted its own tests in 1998. The dispute over the state of Kashmir is ongoing, but discussions and confidence-building measures have led to decreased tensions since 2002.
Geography Pakistan
Location:
Southern Asia, bordering the Arabian Sea, between India on the east and Iran and Afghanistan on the west and China in the north
Geographic coordinates:
30 00 N, 70 00 E
Map references:
Asia
Area:
total: 803,940 sq km
land: 778,720 sq km
water: 25,220 sq km
Area - comparative:
slightly less than twice the size of California
Land boundaries:
total: 6,774 km
border countries: Afghanistan 2,430 km, China 523 km, India 2,912 km, Iran 909 km
Coastline:
1,046 km
Maritime claims:
territorial sea: 12 nm
contiguous zone: 24 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin
Climate:
mostly hot, dry desert; temperate in northwest; arctic in north
Terrain:
flat Indus plain in east; mountains in north and northwest; Balochistan plateau in west
Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m
highest point: K2 (Mt. Godwin-Austen) 8,611 m
Natural resources:
land, extensive natural gas reserves, limited petroleum, poor quality coal, iron ore, copper, salt, limestone
Land use:
arable land: 24.44%
permanent crops: 0.84%
other: 74.72% (2005)
Irrigated land:
182,300 sq km (2003)
Natural hazards:
frequent earthquakes, occasionally severe especially in north and west; flooding along the Indus after heavy rains (July and August)
Environment - current issues:
water pollution from raw sewage, industrial wastes, and agricultural runoff; limited natural fresh water resources; a majority of the population does not have access to potable water; deforestation; soil erosion; desertification
Environment - international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Marine Life Conservation
Geography - note:
controls Khyber Pass and Bolan Pass, traditional invasion routes between Central Asia and the Indian Subcontinent
People Pakistan
Population:
165,803,560 (July 2006 est.)
Age structure:
0-14 years: 39% (male 33,293,428/female 31,434,314)
15-64 years: 56.9% (male 48,214,298/female 46,062,933)
65 years and over: 4.1% (male 3,256,065/female 3,542,522) (2006 est.)
Median age:
total: 19.8 years
male: 19.7 years
female: 20 years (2006 est.)
Population growth rate:
2.09% (2006 est.)
Birth rate:
29.74 births/1,000 population (2006 est.)
Death rate:
8.23 deaths/1,000 population (2006 est.)
Net migration rate:
-0.59 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2006 est.)
Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.92 male(s)/female
total population: 1.05 male(s)/female (2006 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
total: 70.45 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 70.84 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 70.04 deaths/1,000 live births (2006 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 63.39 years
male: 62.4 years
female: 64.44 years (2006 est.)
Total fertility rate:
4 children born/woman (2006 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
0.1% (2001 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
74,000 (2001 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths:
4,900 (2003 est.)
Major infectious diseases:
degree of risk: high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A and E, and typhoid fever
vectorborne diseases: dengue fever, malaria, and cutaneous leishmaniasis are high risks depending on location
animal contact disease: rabies (2005)
Nationality:
noun: Pakistani(s)
adjective: Pakistani
Ethnic groups:
Punjabi, Sindhi, Pashtun (Pathan), Baloch, Muhajir (immigrants from India at the time of partition and their descendants)
Religions:
Muslim 97% (Sunni 77%, Shi'a 20%), Christian, Hindu, and other 3%
Languages:
Punjabi 48%, Sindhi 12%, Siraiki (a Punjabi variant) 10%, Pashtu 8%, Urdu (official) 8%, Balochi 3%, Hindko 2%, Brahui 1%, English (official and lingua franca of Pakistani elite and most government ministries), Burushaski, and other 8%
Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 48.7%
male: 61.7%
female: 35.2% (2004 est.)
Government Pakistan
Country name:
conventional long form: Islamic Republic of Pakistan
conventional short form: Pakistan
local long form: Jamhuryat Islami Pakistan
local short form: Pakistan
former: West Pakistan
Government type:
federal republic
Capital:
name: Islamabad
geographic coordinates: 33 42 N, 73 10 E
time difference: UTC+5 (10 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions:
4 provinces, 1 territory*, and 1 capital territory**; Balochistan, Federally Administered Tribal Areas*, Islamabad Capital Territory**, North-West Frontier Province, Punjab, Sindh
note: the Pakistani-administered portion of the disputed Jammu and Kashmir region consists of two administrative entities: Azad Kashmir and Northern Areas
Independence:
14 August 1947 (from UK)
National holiday:
Republic Day, 23 March (1956)
Constitution:
12 April 1973; suspended 5 July 1977, restored with amendments 30 December 1985; suspended 15 October 1999, restored in stages in 2002; amended 31 December 2003
Legal system:
based on English common law with provisions to accommodate Pakistan's status as an Islamic state; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations
Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal; joint electorates and reserved parliamentary seats for women and non-Muslims
Executive branch:
note: following a military takeover on 12 October 1999, Chief of Army Staff and Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff Committee, General Pervez MUSHARRAF, suspended Pakistan's constitution and assumed the additional title of Chief Executive; on 12 May 2000, Pakistan's Supreme Court unanimously validated the October 1999 coup and granted MUSHARRAF executive and legislative authority for three years from the coup date; on 20 June 2001, MUSHARRAF named himself as president and was sworn in, replacing Mohammad Rafiq TARAR; in a referendum held on 30 April 2002, MUSHARRAF's presidency was extended by five more years; on 1 January 2004, MUSHARRAF won a vote of confidence in the Senate, National Assembly, and four provincial assemblies
chief of state: President General Pervez MUSHARRAF (since 20 June 2001)
head of government: Prime Minister Shaukat AZIZ (since 28 August 2004)
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the prime minister
elections: the president is elected by Parliament for a five-year term; note - in a referendum held on 30 April 2002, MUSHARRAF's presidency was extended by five more years (next to be held in 2007); the prime minister is selected by the National Assembly (next to be held in 2007)
election results: AZIZ elected by the National Assembly on 27 August 2004 with 191 of the votes
Legislative branch:
bicameral Parliament or Majlis-e-Shoora consists of the Senate (100 seats - formerly 87; members indirectly elected by provincial assemblies to serve six-year terms and the National Assembly (342 seats - formerly 217; 60 seats represent women; 10 seats represent minorities; members elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)
elections: Senate - last held in March 2006 (next to be held in March 2009); National Assembly - last held 10 October 2002 (next to be held in 2007)
election results: Senate results - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - PML 47, PPPP 9, MMA 20, MQM/A 6, PML/N 4, PML/F 1, PkMAP 3, ANP 2, PPP 3, JWP 1, BNP-Awami 1, BNP-Mengal 1, BNP/H 1, independents 1; National Assembly results - percent of votes by party - NA; seats by party - PML/Q 126, PPPP 81, MMA 63, PML/N 19, MQM/A 17, NA 16, PML/F 5, PML/J 3, PPP/S 2, BNP 1, JWP 1, PAT 1, PML/Z 1, PTI 1, MQM/H 1, PkMAP 1, independents 3
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court (justices appointed by the president); Federal Islamic or Shari'a Court
Political parties and leaders:
Awami National Party or ANP [Asfandyar Wali KHAN]; Balochistan National Party/Hayee Group or BNP/H [Dr. Hayee BALUCH]; Baluch National Party/Awami or BNP/Awami [Moheem Khan BALOCH]; Baluch National Party-Mengal or BNP/M [Sardar Ataullah MENGAL]; Jamhoori Watan Party or JWP; Jamiat-al-Hadith or JAH [Sajid MIR]; Jamiat-i-Islami or JI [Qazi Hussain AHMED]; Jamiat Ulema-i-Islam, Fazlur Rehman faction or JUI/F [Fazlur REHMAN]; Jamiat Ulema-i-Islam, Sami ul-HAQ faction or JUI/S [Sami ul-HAQ]; Jamiat Ulema-i-Pakistan or JUP [Shah Faridul HAQ]; Muttahida Majlis-e-Amal Pakistan or MMA [Qazi Hussain AHMED]; Muttahida Qaumi Movement, Altaf faction or MQM/A [Altaf HUSSAIN]; Muttahida Quami Movement, Haqiqi faction or MQM/H [Afaq AHMAD]; National Alliance or NA [Ghulam Mustapha JATOI]; Pakhtun Khwa Milli Awami Party or PkMAP [Mahmood Khan ACHAKZAI]; Pakhtun Quami Party or PQP [Mohammed Afzal KHAN]; Pakistan Awami Tehrik or PAT [Tahir ul QADRI]; Pakistan Muslim League, Functional Group or PML/F [Pir PAGARO]; Pakistan Muslim League, Nawaz Sharif faction or PML/N [Nawaz SHARIF]; Pakistan Muslim League or PML [Chaudhry Shujaat HUSSAIN]; note - as of May 2004, the PML/Q changed its name to PML and absorbed the PML/J, PML/Z, and NA; Pakistan National Party or PNP [Hasil BIZENJO]; Pakistan People's Party or PPP [Aftab Ahmed Khan SHERPAO]; Pakistan People's Party Parliamentarians or PPPP [Benazir BHUTTO]; Pakistan Tehrik-e-Insaaf or PTI [Imran KHAN]; Tehrik-i-Islami [Allama Sajid NAQVI]
note: political alliances in Pakistan can shift frequently
Political pressure groups and leaders:
military remains most important political force; ulema (clergy), landowners, industrialists, and small merchants also influential
International organization participation:
ARF, AsDB, C (reinstated 2004), CP, ECO, FAO, G-24, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITU, MIGA, MINURSO, MINUSTAH, MONUC, NAM, OAS (observer), OIC, ONUB, OPCW, PCA, SAARC, SACEP, SCO (observer), UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNITAR, UNMIL, UNMIS, UNOCI, UNOMIG, UPU, WCL, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Mahmud Ali DURRANI
chancery: 3517 International Court, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 243-6500
FAX: [1] (202) 686-0484
consulate(s) general: Los Angeles, New York, Sunnyvale (California)
consulate(s): Chicago, Houston
Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Ryan CROCKER
embassy: Diplomatic Enclave, Ramna 5, Islamabad
mailing address: P. O. Box 1048, Unit 62200, APO AE 09812-2200
telephone: [92] (51) 208-0000
FAX: [92] (51) 2276427
consulate(s) general: Karachi
consulate(s): Lahore, Peshawar
Flag description:
green with a vertical white band (symbolizing the role of religious minorities) on the hoist side; a large white crescent and star are centered in the green field; the crescent, star, and color green are traditional symbols of Islam
Economy Pakistan
Economy - overview:
Pakistan, an impoverished and underdeveloped country, has suffered from decades of internal political disputes, low levels of foreign investment, and a costly, ongoing confrontation with neighboring India. However, IMF-approved government policies, bolstered by generous foreign assistance and renewed access to global markets since 2001, have generated solid macroeconomic recovery the last four years. The government has made substantial macroeconomic reforms since 2000, although progress on more politically sensitive reforms has slowed. For example, in the budget for fiscal year 2006, Islamabad did not impose taxes on the agriculture or real estate sectors, despite Pakistan's chronically low tax-to-GDP ratio. While long-term prospects remain uncertain, given Pakistan's low level of development, medium-term prospects for job creation and poverty reduction are the best in more than a decade. Islamabad has raised development spending from about 2% of GDP in the 1990s to 4% in 2003, a necessary step towards reversing the broad underdevelopment of its social sector. GDP growth, spurred by double-digit gains in industrial production over the past year, has become less dependent on agriculture, and remained above 7% in 2004 and 2005. Inflation remains the biggest threat to the economy, jumping to more than 9% in 2005. The World Bank and Asian Development Bank announced that they would provide US $1 billion each in aid to help Pakistan rebuild areas hit by the October 2005 earthquake in Kashmir. Foreign exchange reserves continued to reach new levels in 2005, supported by steady worker remittances. In the near term, growth probably cannot be sustained at the 7% level; however, massive international aid, increased government spending, lower taxes, and pay increases for government workers will help Pakistan maintain strong GDP growth over the longer term.
GDP (purchasing power parity):
$395.2 billion (2005 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate):
$89.55 billion (2005 est.)
GDP - real growth rate:
6.6% (2005 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP):
$2,400 (2005 est.)
GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 21.6%
industry: 25.1%
services: 53.3% (2005 est.)
Labor force:
46.84 million
note: extensive export of labor, mostly to the Middle East, and use of child labor (2005 est.)
Labor force - by occupation:
agriculture: 42%
industry: 20%
services: 38% (2004 est.)
Unemployment rate:
6.6% plus substantial underemployment (2005 est.)
Population below poverty line:
32% (FY00/01 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: 4.1%
highest 10%: 27.6% (FY96/97)
Distribution of family income - Gini index:
41 (FY98/99)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
9.1% (2005 est.)
Investment (gross fixed):
15.3% of GDP (2005 est.)
Budget:
revenues: $15.45 billion
expenditures: $20.07 billion; including capital expenditures of $NA (2005 est.)
Public debt:
53.8% of GDP (2005 est.)
Agriculture - products:
cotton, wheat, rice, sugarcane, fruits, vegetables; milk, beef, mutton, eggs
Industries:
textiles and apparel, food processing, pharmaceuticals, construction materials, paper products, fertilizer, shrimp
Industrial production growth rate:
10.7% (2005 est.)
Electricity - production:
76.92 billion kWh (2003)
Electricity - production by source:
fossil fuel: 68.8%
hydro: 28.2%
nuclear: 3%
other: 0% (2001)
Electricity - consumption:
71.54 billion kWh (2003)
Electricity - exports:
0 kWh (2003)
Electricity - imports:
0 kWh (2003)
Oil - production:
63,000 bbl/day (2005 est.)
Oil - consumption:
365,000 bbl/day (2004 est.)
Oil - exports:
NA bbl/day
Oil - imports:
NA bbl/day
Oil - proved reserves:
341.8 million bbl (2005 est.)
Natural gas - production:
23.8 billion cu m (2003 est.)
Natural gas - consumption:
23.8 billion cu m (2003 est.)
Natural gas - exports:
0 cu m (2001 est.)
Natural gas - imports:
0 cu m (2001 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves:
759.7 billion cu m (2005)
Current account balance:
$-1.109 billion (2005 est.)
Exports:
$14.85 billion f.o.b. (2005 est.)
Exports - commodities:
textiles (garments, bed linen, cotton cloth, yarn), rice, leather goods, sports goods, chemicals, manufactures, carpets and rugs
Exports - partners:
US 22.5%, UAE 8.9%, UK 5.8%, China 5.4%, Germany 4.6% (2005)
Imports:
$21.26 billion f.o.b. (2005 est.)
Imports - commodities:
petroleum, petroleum products, machinery, plastics, transportation equipment, edible oils, paper and paperboard, iron and steel, tea
Imports - partners:
China 13.8%, Saudi Arabia 10.3%, UAE 8.8%, Japan 6.1%, US 5%, Kuwait 5%, Germany 4.8% (2005)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
$10.95 billion (2005 est.)
Debt - external:
$38.8 billion (2005 est.)
Economic aid - recipient:
$2.4 billion (FY01/02)
Currency (code):
Pakistani rupee (PKR)
Currency code:
PKR
Exchange rates:
Pakistani rupees per US dollar - 59.515 (2005), 58.258 (2004), 57.752 (2003), 59.724 (2002), 61.927 (2001)
Fiscal year:
1 July - 30 June
Communications Pakistan
Telephones - main lines in use:
5,277,500 (2005)
Telephones - mobile cellular:
12.771 million (2005)
Telephone system:
general assessment: the domestic system is mediocre, but improving; service is adequate for government and business use, in part because major businesses have established their own private systems; since 1988, the government has promoted investment in the national telecommunications system on a priority basis, significantly increasing network capacity; despite major improvements in trunk and urban systems, telecommunication services are still not readily available to the majority of the rural population
domestic: microwave radio relay, coaxial cable, fiber-optic cable, cellular, and satellite networks
international: country code - 92; satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat (1 Atlantic Ocean and 2 Indian Ocean); 3 operational international gateway exchanges (1 at Karachi and 2 at Islamabad); microwave radio relay to neighboring countries (1999)
Radio broadcast stations:
AM 27, FM 1, shortwave 21 (1998)
Radios:
13.5 million (1997)
Television broadcast stations:
22 (plus seven low-power repeaters) (1997)
Televisions:
3.1 million (1997)
Internet country code:
.pk
Internet hosts:
72,765 (2006)
Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
30 (2000)
Internet users:
10.5 million (2005)
Transportation Pakistan
Airports:
139 (2006)
Airports - with paved runways:
total: 91
over 3,047 m: 14
2,438 to 3,047 m: 21
1,524 to 2,437 m: 33
914 to 1,523 m: 15
under 914 m: 8 (2006)
Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 48
over 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 12
914 to 1,523 m: 12
under 914 m: 23 (2006)
Heliports:
18 (2006)
Pipelines:
gas 10,257 km; oil 2,001 km (2006)
Railways:
total: 8,163 km
broad gauge: 7,718 km 1.676-m gauge (293 km electrified)
narrow gauge: 445 km 1.000-m gauge (2004)
Roadways:
total: 255,856 km
paved: 157,975 km (including 367 km of expressways)
unpaved: 97,881 km (2004)
Merchant marine:
total: 16 ships (1000 GRT or over) 397,740 GRT/657,656 DWT
by type: bulk carrier 1, cargo 10, container 1, petroleum tanker 4
registered in other countries: 11 (Comoros 2, North Korea 3, Malta 1, Nigeria 1, Panama 3, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 1) (2006)
Ports and terminals:
Karachi, Port Muhammad Bin Qasim
Military Pakistan
Military branches:
Army (includes National Guard), Navy (includes Marines), Pakistan Air Force (Pakistan Fiza'ya) (2006)
Military service age and obligation:
16 years of age for voluntary military service; soldiers cannot be deployed for combat until age of 18; the Pakistani Air Force has inducted its first female combat pilot (2006)
Manpower available for military service:
males age 16-49: 39,028,014
females age 16-49: 36,779,584 (2005 est.)
Manpower fit for military service:
males age 16-49: 29,428,747
females age 16-49: 28,391,887 (2005 est.)
Manpower reaching military service age annually:
males age 18-49: 1,969,055
females age 16-49: 1,849,254 (2005 est.)
Military expenditures - dollar figure:
$4.26 billion (2005 est.)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
3.9% (2005 est.)
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